1. "Somatic hypermutation gives rise to B cells bearing mutant immunoglobulin molecules on their surface. Some of these mutant immunoglobulins have substitutions in the antigen-binding site that increase its affinity for the antigen. B cells bearing these mutant high-affinity immunoglobulin receptors compete most effectively for binding to antigen and are preferentially selected to mature into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The mutant antibodies that emerge from the selection do not have a random distribution of amino-acid substitutions. The changes are concentrated at positions in the heavy-chain and light-chain CDR loops that form the antigen-binding site and directly contact antigen. As the adaptive immune response to infection proceeds, antibodies of progressively higher affinity for the infecting pathogen are produced – a phenomenon called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation is a process of evolution in which variant immunoglobulins generated in a random manner are subjected"
- Peter Parham, The Immune System
2. "An evil man threw tobacco in the macaque-rhesus eyes.' Oleg was struck dumb. Up to then he had been strolling along smiling with knowing condescension, but now he felt like yelling and roaring across the whole zoo, as though the tobacco had been thrown into his own eyes. 'Why?' Thrown into its eyes, just like that! 'Why? It's senseless! Why?'" - Kostoglotov"
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Cancer Ward
3. "The carriers of the altered genes must have come into contact with an antigen that triggered the production of a virus, until that moment dormant in their DNA. Even now, now that she had all the pieces, Carmen could still hardly believe it. It was too terrible, too cruel. It made no difference to the children's suffering〰they would have succumbed immediately, passing the virus on to the others before they died. Holly was the one who was going to suffer. She would see it as her fault: the direct consequence of her desire for healthy offspring. All that terrible suffering, all that black putrification and agony, flowing from her loins."
- Patrick Lynch, Carriers
4. "The majority of genes in the [MHC (Mean Histocompatibility Complex)] class I region are not involved in the immune system; neither do the class I genes form as a compact cluster as the class II genes. Whereas genes encoding class II molecules are only present in the class II region of the HLA [(Human Leukocyte Antigen) complex], genes encoding class I molecules and related class I-like molecules are found on several different chromosomes. A further difference is that HLA class II molecules are dedicated components of adaptive immunity that serve only to present antigen to T cells, whereas HLA class I and class I-like molecules encompass a broader range of functions, including uptake of IgG in the gut, regulation of iron metabolism, and regulation of NK [(Natural Killer)]-cell function in the innate immune response. Together, these genetic and functional differences show that MCH class I is the older form of MHC molecule and that MHC class II evolved more recently from MHC class I"
- Quote by Peter Parham
5. "INTRODUCTION The Puzzling Puzzles of Harry Harlow and Edward Deci In the middle of the last century, two young scientists conducted experiments that should have changed the world—but did not. Harry F. Harlow was a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin who, in the 1940s, established one of the world’s first laboratories for studying primate behavior. One day in 1949, Harlow and two colleagues gathered eight rhesus monkeys for a two-week experiment on learning. The researchers devised a simple mechanical puzzle like the one pictured on the next page. Solving it required three steps: pull out the vertical pin, undo the hook, and lift the hinged cover. Pretty easy for you and me, far more challenging for a thirteen-pound"
- Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
6. ", and the terminal repeat sequences evolved to become the recombination signal sequences for the first rearranging gene segments. During this evolution, the transposase gene and the long terminal repeats of the transposon were separated and became components of different genes, both expressed specifically in lymphocytes. Today, the human RAG genes are on chromosome 11[,] and on four other chromosomes are the much-expanded sets of rearranging antigen-receptor genes."
- Peter Parham, The Immune System