1. "So just what is this mysterious dark matter? The first possibility is that it is just conventional matter, i.e., atoms composed of protons and neutrons. This would have to be in a form so that it does not emit any light (and is therefore "dark" and invisible). This might include black holes or very dense neutron stars. These type of bodies which are proposed to constitute dark matter are called MACHOs (Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Object). However, MACHOs seem unlikely to be the solution to dark matter as they tend to be isolated objects, whereas it is known that dark matter is spread fairly evenly over a galaxy. The opposite of being MACHO is to be a WIMP, so the other possibility is that dark matter is composed of WIMPs (Weakly Interactive Massive Particles). These would be new particles, not contained in the standard model."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
2. "But it is this peculiar behaviour of the gravity spring which enables the universe to have zero total energy."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
3. "So the vacuum energy can result in negative pressure. And this is very interesting, because pressure is a form of energy. General relativity predicts that not only is mass gravitationally attractive, but positive pressure is also gravitationally attractive. And so, quite incredibly, negative pressure is predicted to result in gravitational repulsion! As Alan Guth says in The Inflationary Universe: "According to general relativity, a positive pressure creates an attractive gravitational field, as one might guess. A negative pressure, however, creates a repulsive gravitational field." So next time someone says that gravity is a force which is always attractive, you can correct them: negative pressure results in gravitational repulsion!"

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
4. "each elementary particle is paired with a superpartner particle. However, the LHC has not detected any of these predicted"

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
5. "Though the nature of this missing mass was completely unknown, Zwicky gave the German name "dunkle materie" to the material, which translates to "dark matter". It is now believed that 90% of the mass of the Coma Cluster is in the form of dark matter. Unfortunately, Zwicky was a difficult man to get along with (he was dubbed "borderline psychopathic" in a BBC documentary Most Of Our Universe Is Missing, available on YouTube). Zwicky referred to his colleagues as "spherical bastards" — because they were bastards no matter which way you looked at them. As a result, Zwicky's work was ignored for many decades."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
6. "relativity, and how to make sense of bizarre quantum mechanical behaviour — were considered in my previous book. I am pleased to say that this new book is going to propose a potentially simple solution to many of the remaining problems. Forces"

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
7. "The Schwarzschild radius of the universe is the huge distance of 1.5 × 1027m (calculated from the mass of 1054kg) — a distance which is larger than the radius of the current observable universe. So the whole mass of the universe is contained within its Schwarzschild radius. This means that, for the universe as a whole, the repulsive effect becomes highlysignificant. Gravity would act to expand the universe."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
8. "We could list several of the most puzzling and important unsolved problems in current theoretical physics: The unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. The two dominant theories of physics remain stubbornly at odds with each other. However, it should be possible to combine them into a single, deeper theory. How can we make sense of the "weirdness" of quantum mechanics? What does it all mean? Dark matter. What is the mysterious substance which greatly exceeds the amount of normal mass in the universe? Dark energy. What unknown force is powering the acceleration of the expansion of the universe? The black hole information loss paradox. General relativity says that information can be lost in black holes, but, according to quantum mechanics, this should be impossible. Inflation of the universe. The theory which has been at the cornerstone of cosmology for thirty years has been found to be flawed. But any replacement theory has to be able to explain why the structure of the universe is so smooth."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
9. "The first two problems I have listed — the unification of quantum mechanics with relativity, and how to make sense of bizarre quantum mechanical behaviour — were considered in my previous book. I am pleased to say that this new book is going to propose a potentially simple solution to many of the remaining problems."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe
10. "information content is called the holographic bound."

Andrew Thomas, Hidden In Plain Sight 2: The Equation of the Universe